# Safe low-overhead alternative to printf

In posts Making string formatting fast and Fast integer to string conversion in C++ I have shown that safe alternatives to printf and sprintf such as the C++ Format library can perform on par and even outperform their unsafe C counterparts.

But speed is not the only parameter that may be of interest to us. Another important parameter is the size of compiled code or “code bloat” and this is what the current post is about.

First question is how does one measure the code bloat. Fortunately, Chris Foster, the author of tinyformat wrote a nice benchmark bloat_test.sh which I took the liberty to extend by including C++ Format and making some minor improvements. This benchmark simulates a medium-sized project by generating 100 translation units each containing 5 calls to printf or its equivalent for a particular formatting method. These translation units are compiled into a single executable the size of which gives a measure of code bloat.

So here are the benchmark results, obviously smaller is better:

These results where obtained with GCC 4.8.1 on Ubuntu 13.10 x86_64. I’m only showing the results for the optimized version (compiled with -O3) because that’s what the user normally sees. libc, libstdc++ and libformat are all linked as shared libraries to compare formatting function overhead only. Boost Format and tinyformat are header-only libraries so there are no linkage options for them.

As you can see C++ Format has 80% less overhead in terms of resulting code size compared to IOStreams and comes pretty close to printf. In real code the effect of replacing printf with C++ Format methods will be even more negligible as the benchmark code consists almost entirely of print methods.

So the conclusion is that safe print methods can easily compete with printf both in terms of resulting code size and runtime speed. However, this requires careful implementation, otherwise the code bloat can be enormous as the results for Boost Format show.

As usual, you can reproduce the results yourself: